Afrophobia

Term describing hostility, prejudice, discrimination or racism against Africans or people of African descent.

Antisemitism

Term describing hostility, prejudice, discrimination or racism against Jews and Judaism.

Antiziganism

Term describing hostility, prejudice, discrimination or racism directed at the Romani people.

Asylum-seeker

A person who has fled their own country, a refugee, who is applying for residency in a foreign country.  A person is an asylum-seeker before the decision has been made whether or not the person qualifies for international protection, meaning that the person cannot live without a well founded fair of persecution in their country of origin. International law states that a person then has the right to stay in the country where they seek protection Sweden has signed the Genevaconvention which means that the country has promised to obey international law on refugee protection. 

Bullying

Is when someone is victimised through negative treatment several times. The victim is put in a disadvantaged position and can have a hard time defending themselves.

Convention

An important agreement between different countries.

Cultural racism

Cultural racists understand cultures as separate, set entities of different value. Cultural  racism treats a culture or religion as the functional equivalent of race. Cultural racism is the dominant form of racism today.

Degrading treatment

When a person is treated badly without it being linked to any of the grounds of discrimination. Abusive and degrading behaviour can take place once or repeatedly during a long period of time, in which case it’s also referred to as bullying.

Discrimination

Discrimination refers to when a person or group are treated worse than others on the grounds of their religion or culture, the country they come from, their gender, a disability they have, their sexual orientation, or their age. It can also apply to a person who neither feels like a boy or a girl, or who doesn’t fit the norms for how girls or boys are expected to act, dress, etc. There are seven grounds for discrimination, and in the law they are listed as follows: sex, religion or belief, ethnic background, disability, sexual orientation, age, and transgender identity or expression. Read more about discrimination at www.do.se.

Ethnic identity

According to the law, ethnic identity refers to an individual’s national and ethnic origin, skin colour, or other similar factors. All people have one or several ethnic identities. All people can therefore be the victims of ethnic discrimination—Sami people; Roma; people with Swedish, Somalian, or Bosnian ethnic identities; and so on. Ethnic identity is based on self-identification. That is to say, it’s the individual himself/herself that defines his/her own ethnic identity or identities.

Fascism

Fascism is an authoritarian and nationalistic political ideology. Authoritarian is when someone makes unwarranted claims to authority and power using illegitimate means such as violence or threats.

Identity

Who you are. Your name, where you come from, and your family can all be part of what makes up your identity. It can also be based on a feeling of belonging to a particular group of people.

Influence

The ability to exert authority or power over people, situations or circumstances.

Internally displaced

People who have been forced to flee but remain within their own country’s borders, domestic refugees, are often mistakenly called refugees. Unlike refugees, internally displaced people have not crossed an international border to find safety but remain in their own country.

Integration

To be fully included in a context. An integrated person is part of Swedish society but is also able to retain parts of their own culture of origin, such as their religion, and be respected and received by the majority. Therefore, the responsibility to be inclusive lies with the majority.

Islamophobia

The fear of Islam and exaggerated perceptions that Islam is a religion that leads to negative behaviour, and that the the presence of Muslims in society is a danger.

Harassment

Is when someone is treated badly because of their religion, the country they come from, their gender, a disability, age, or a certain sexual persuasion. It can also apply to a person who neither feels like a boy or a girl or who doesn’t fit the norms for how girls or boys are expected to act, dress etc. The difference between harassment and bullying is that harassment has to do with the seven ground for discrimination. But it doesn’t matter what it’s called. It’s as illegal to harass as it is to bully!

Human Rights

Applies to all people and has to do with the fact that all people, wherever they are in the world, are born free and equal. The rights are written down in declarations. The most well-known is the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights from 1948. The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child includes the human rights of children.

Nazism

Nazism is another word for National Socialism, which is both a political movement and an ideology. The German Nazi Party (NSDAP) was the group that interpreted and developed the Nazi ideology. They were in power from 1933 to 1945, and during World War II, with Adolf Hitler as their leader. The main idea behind their ideology was based on “racial theories” where the Aryan people, such as the Germans, were seen as superior and placed at the top of the evolutionary ladder, and the Jewish people placed at the bottom. This lead to the horrid persecution and extinction of Jews and other minorities in what is known as the Holocaust.

Prejudice

Is a preconceived idea with a value that describes how a person or group is. Statements such as “people from southern Sweden are stingy” and “immigrants are all criminals” are prejudiced because they not only describe something but also add a value to the description and the person. Negative prejudices have in common that they generalise and lump people together, blaming the whole group for what someone in the group has done or is said to have done.

Racism

An ideology based on the unproved scientific theory that mankind is divided into different races, as well as the false idea that certain races are superior to others. The idea that certain groups of people are superior due to a particular racial affiliation is predominantly a Western worldview that was birthed out of colonialism in the 1500s and onwards.

Refugee

According to the UN Refugee Conventions, also referred to as the Geneva Convention, the definition for a refugee is a person that has left their country due to a well founded fear of persecution because of his/her race, nationality, religion, political affiliation or their belonging to a certain ethnic group. In order to be granted refugee status the person cannot, due to their fear, receive protection in their home country. All countries that have signed the refugee convention (Sweden is one of them) have agreed to host and provide a safe haven for persons that fulfill these criteria.

Sometimes the word refugee is used to describe a person fleeing their home country but has not yet had their asylum application granted, this refers to a person that has been forcibly displaced but is not officially recognized as a refugee. 

Stateless

Citizenship is a legal binding between a state and an individual, and statelessness means that a person is not considered to belong to, or be the citizen of, any state. Statelessness has terrible consequences for individual people’s lives. Possessing a nationality is foundational for full participation in society, and a prerequisite in order to have access to all human rights. Statelessness can occur for a number of reasons, for example as a result of discrimination against a minority group in national legislation, failure to include all inhabitants when a new state becomes independent, and when there are legal conflicts between states. An estimated 12 million people around the world are affected by statelessness.

Unaccompanied minors

An unaccompanied minor is a person under 18 years of age who reaches Sweden having been separated from their parents or from another close relative. Being an unaccompanied minor isn’t an identity. It’s the experience of having come alone to a new country, which varies from person to person.

Undocumented migrants

Undocumented or irregular migrants, or sans papiers (French for without papers) are words to describe a person that lives in a country without permission to do so. Undocumented migrants often leave their countries for the same reasons the refugees do, but it can also be because of poverty, starvation, need for health care, climate catastrophes or to be united with their family. Sometimes undocumented migrants fulfill the criteria for refugees but have for various reasons been unable to apply for asylum or have had their asylum requests declined.

Xenophobia

Rejection of, or hostility towards, foreigners. The term has been used since World War II, and is sometimes used as synonymous with racism.
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